Recruitment and selection process is defined as the process through which the best individuals are selected from a pool of applicants for the particular position of the job. The selection process is considered as one of the significant critical decisions for the most of the managers in the organisation. In the selection process, there is the check of the skills and the abilities of the applicants so that they can match it with the requirements of the job. No single selection process can be considered as the standard one for all organisations. Instead, the steps and procedures of selection process vary from one organisation to another.
What are the main factors that affect the recruitment and selection procedure?
Recruitment and selection process is supported by a standard and permanent process of screening. However, in some cases, the screening process cannot simplify the selection process because specific other factors influence the selection process. These factors are the environmental factors as mentioned below:
THE PACE OF DECISION MAKING
The recruitment and selection process is directly influenced by the available time to decide on a selection. In general cases, the selection process is followed by some policies and the procedures to protect the organisation from legal issues. But in certain situations, there is much pressure on the organisation that forces the management to follow the exceptional selection process.
Human resource management is influenced by the court decisions, executive order and legislation. The management of the organisation should use the legally defensive selection tools in the selection process.
HIERARCHY OF THE ORGANISATION
Recruitment and the selection process vary from organisation to organisation. Different levels of the hierarchy have the different levels of post fillings in the organisation. Thus, the selection process keeps on vary as per the requirement and the specifications.
The recruitment and selection process is also influenced by the number of applicants for a particular job. In case of many qualified applicants for a particular post, the selection process becomes selective. For this purpose, the selection ratio is ascertained by comparing the number of selected applicants to the number of applicants in a pool.
TYPE OF ORGANISATION
The type of the organisation like a government organisation, private or non-profit organisation etc. also affects the recruitment and selection process for hiring the personnel.
Certain organisations adopt the procedure of probation period in the selection process to check the potential of the individual through his performance. This may take the form of either validity check on the selection process or as a substitute for some steps of the selection process.
In most of the cases, the applicants are selected by the following factors or criteria. In a way, the applicant that best fits the above criteria is chosen rather than the one that has extraordinary skills or over as well as under qualified because in such case the later selected person would not correctly adjust in the organisation.
What are the steps involved in the recruitment and selection process in HRM?
The selection process starts after the preliminary interview after which the applicants for the employment are filled by the candidates. The candidates pass through some selection tests, interviews of employment and background check and references. There are the steps involved in the whole process:
The selection and the recruitment process starts with the initial screening of applicants so that the certain ones are a drop out at the initial stage. Initial screening is helpful to save the time, cost and the effort of the selection committee in the following steps of the selection process. In this step, specific general questions are asked of the applicants. There are chances that some applicants would be unqualified for the job but some of them would be qualified. Thus, the primary purpose of screening of applicants is to reduce the number of applicants available in the selection process.
Firstly, the interviews are employed to verify the accuracy and the validity of the information given in the curriculum vitae of the applicant. Secondly, the duration of these interviews is quite short.
SUBMISSION OF THE APPLICATION
The application of the person for employment is formally recorded in the shape of the application blank. In the next step of the selection process, an application form for the employment is completed by the prospective applicant. The information contained in the application blank differs from one organisation to another. But the informational needs and the requirements are covered in the application blank. The historical data from the candidate can be quickly collected through the application blanks so that further verification about the accuracy of the data is carried out.
The physical and mental abilities of the individual, knowledge and the skills, personal characteristics and other aspects of the behaviour can be effectively measured through the pre-employment test. For this, there are numerous tests that can measure the various aspects of human behaviour. With the passage of time, the application of the pre-employment test is growing at a fast rate in the selection process because they can explain the qualities and the skills of the applicant.
In the interview, the interviewer and the interviewee exchange information to achieve the goal by having a face-to-face conversation. The employment interviews are conducted during the selection process through proper planning. The pleasant location of the interviewing place is selected, and the interviewer has the excellent personality with empathy and the ability to communicate and listen effectively. The profile of the job must be prepared by the job description before conducting the interview.
The accuracy of the application form of the candidate is verified through the references and former employer. The educational, criminal record and the legal status to work are verified. Personal references of the applicant are contacted to confirm the validity and the accuracy of the information provided. Special efforts are made to know the past relations and the behaviour of the employee so that they can predict the working style of the employee.
When the conditional job letter is issued, the next step of the selection process starts in which the physical and medical examination of the selected candidate is conducted. The medical exam of the candidate is essential to check either he takes the drugs or not. If he passes the exam, he would be finally selected for the job.
FINAL SELECTION DECISION
After passing the medical exam by the candidate, the final offer for the job is made to the candidate by the relevant department.