The community is a group of people having common characteristics such as religion, norms, values, identity, and place (geographical area). the size of the group varies from area to area, it could be small or large. Any group of people can be called a community if it has the following features:
- Integration and fulfillment of needs
- Shared emotional connection.
Community health is the discipline of study within medical and clinical sciences, which focuses on protection and maintenance of health of whole community constituting of a group of people. According to the World Health Organization,
‘Community health refers to the wellbeing of environmental, social, economic factors of the community and people are physically fit and uniqueness in the environment is satisfying the needs of the community. The health of the community is very significant for the overall development of the economy and it is measured by evaluating the data from geographic information system software and datasets of public health. The multivariate statistical techniques are used for the analysis.’
Communities have policies and procedures to improve health. They called it as health prevention and disease prevention.
Disease prevention refers to the preventive measures taken by healthcare organizations to prevent and cure primary and secondary diseases prevalent in the community.
Primary prevention refers to the manifestation of diseases and preventing them by changing the social and economic determinants of the economy. In primary prevention, the measures will be taken at a personal and community level by providing health education to them. Services and activities performed under primary prevention are as follows:
- Vaccination of children, adults, and elders.
- Dissemination of information related to behavioral and medical health risks.
- Measures to reduce the risk of disease at a community or even personal level
- Conducting disease prevention programs at the primary level and specialized care of the community.
- Supplementation of food and nutrition.
- Providing education on dental oral hygiene and health.
Secondary prevention requires the detection and cure of disease from the early stage. The services under secondary prevention are as follows:
- Screening programs for the population of the community for early detection of diseases.
- Special measures for the healthcare of conceived lady and child.
- Treatments providing prevention against risk factors using chemoprophylactic.
Health promotion: health promotion is the process of providing guidance and knowledge to the community to aware them for health issues. So that they can prevent themselves from the threats of communicable as well as non- communicable diseases. The health promotion is not just limited to the dissemination of knowledge; it also empowers the community so that they can take preventive measures at a proper time. To promote the health of the community, the following services and activities are conducted:
- Policies are formulated in the community to prohibit the use of tobacco, alcohol or any other harmful substance.
- Formulation of provisions relating to the intervention of any dietary or nutritional malpractices.
- Intervention policies to restrict the practices that affect the mental health of the community.
- Formulation of policies to tackle the practices of domestic violence, provide awareness to them.
- Reorientation health services are provided to encourage the promotion of health and promoting health in the community.