Training and development are one of the most critical functions of the human resource department where the companies train and develop their employees to perform their duties most efficiently. The main aim to provide training is to enhance the skills and competencies of the employees. When the employees work with improved skills, the productivity also increases. The efficiency of the workers improves when they get new understanding and knowledge about their process and products.
Learning is the primary outcome of any training program, and therefore the managers or the trainers emphasise those methods which can make the employees learn better and faster. The training session is just the tip of the iceberg as there are many stages of a training program before and after the training sessions.
THE NEED FOR TRAINING THE EMPLOYEES
The primary function of training is to better the performance of the workers by providing them with the knowledge of current trends and techniques.
- The Need for training usually arises when there is a change in methods for carrying out a process.
- The employees also need training when the companies add a new process or service to their already existing array of products. The new procedures demand different skills, and therefore the employees have to train for them.
- The training also arises when the companies want to expand their business. It can be a different location in their own country or in the new state where they have to start their operations by hiring new employees.
- Whenever the organisations hire an individual as their employee, it is essential that they provide induction and training so that they can start working on the projects with the required knowledge and skills.
- When the organisations have to bring in behavioural changes in their employees to enhance the teamwork and understanding among them then also the companies have to take help of training and development functions.
DIFFERENT METHODS OF ON-THE-JOB TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT USED BY COMPANIES
As the name is suggesting on-the-job training methods are used to train the inexperienced or new employees while doing their job. They also learn by observing their colleagues and superiors and imitate what they do. These methods are not very costly, and the work also does not get hampered as the employees learn the skills while working on their project. The trainees use the same machines and equipment for training which are used by the companies for carrying out the process. Thus the trainees also get familiar with their working. There are different on-the-job training methods which are sued by the companies:
- Job Rotation
Job rotation is done with the existing employees of the company. Hen the organisations want that their employees should know the functions of different departments also then they follow the job rotation method. Here the employees of one department have to leave their responsibilities for some time and learn the duties and work of different departments. The job rotation method is usually used when there is a need to promote an employee to the general management role where he/she should know all departments. This also gives the employees an opportunity to learn new skills and the departments can also benefit themselves with the different set of ideas and procedures suggested by the employees. This is in all a win-win situation for the departments as well as the employees.
- JIT or Job instruction technology
The job instruction training entails the stepwise instructions given by a trainer to know the procedure to complete a specific process. JIT provides an overview to the new employees about the primary functions, dos and don’ts of a particular stage of the process. The trainer or the immediate senior of the trainee has to demonstrate the whole task so that he/she can get it importance and applicability right. The trainer also has to tell about the purpose of the job too. Once the new employees understand the process entirely, they have to demonstrate it to their seniors or the trainers. If they do it right, they can start working on it otherwise they have to learn it once again.
With the JIT method, the trainers can quickly know whether the training has been fruitful or not. The results arrive immediately, and therefore this training method is used by many organisations.
In the training method understudy, the immediate seniors provide training to their subordinates. The employees have to handle the day to day activities as their seniors do and they learn from them. The companies do this if they have to promote the employees to the next level role.
Providing coaching to the employees is an example of one-to-one training method. The main advantage of this method to the managers or the training professionals is that they can know about the weak areas of the people quickly by integrating with them on the personal level. The coaching method is an excellent example of transferring the theoretical aspects of the specific concept of the process to get them into practice.
When there is a need to alter the attitudes of the employees so that they can work better than the training method, mentoring is put into action. It is used by the organisations for the managerial roles where they are given the guidance of t senior level manager. It is also a form of one to one training method and in this way similar to then coaching method.
The apprenticeship training method is used when there is a requirement of providing the training for new generation skills and practices. This method is particularly important for the industries like trades, and technical fields where the employees take a longer time to gain proficiency in the skills associated with these functions. For a more extended period, the trainees have to serve as the assist the expert in that particular field. The central aspect of this training method is that the trainees achieve to work very closely with their seniors. The craftsmen industries apply Apprenticeship method for training their employees. The trainees are called as apprentices, and they usually have to remain in training for at least six months or one year of time.
The job profiles where this method of training is particularly useful are like a plumber, firefighter, telecommunication technician, operating engineer, carpenters, and many more.