Students are expected to paraphrase information from at least two academic journal articles to support their answer to each question (i.e. 4 in total). When doing so you must provide the correct ‘in-text’ and ‘Reference List’ citation details. Provide a Reference List at the end of each answer.
To gain the most from this assessment activity it is suggested that students write approximately 200-300 words for each answer.
Each question is worth 5 marks.
1. Define the term ‘Organisational Commitment’ and describe the types of organisational outcomes it might lead to..
(W. Johnston, 2013) defined organizational commitment as an investment which is made by a person when any organization is joined by him. Under the approach of investment, all the actions are taken by the person only when the membership is intended for justifying the act of joining. Organizational commitment might lead to two types of organizational commitment which includes organizational commitment-to-effort and effort-to-performance. Organizational commitment-to-effort is an outcome of organizational commitment in which an individual who is committed towards an organization is supposed to make above average efforts on its own. (Wittig-berman and Lang, 1990) discussed defined organizational commitment as predictor of absenteeism, turnover and tardiness. Organizational commitment plays a significant role in minimizing such forms of physical withdrawal. Organizational commitment might lead to beneficial outcomes like improved customer service and prosocial behaviour. The difference between the continuance commitment and value commitment might be essential for understanding outcomes apart from job performance. The impact of the organizational commitment on absenteeism and turnover have been identified significantly.
Johnston, M. (2013). Antecedents and Outcomes of Organizational Commitment: A Study of Salespeople. Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management. [online] Available at:
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/261574504_Antecedents_and_Outcomes_of_Organizational_Commitment_A_Study_of_Salespeople [Accessed 15 Mar. 2019]
Wittig-berman, U. and Lang, D. (1990). Organizational commitment and its outcomes: Differing effects of value commitment and continuance commitment on stress reactions, alienation and organization-serving behaviours. Work & Stress, 4(2), pp.167-177.
2. Briefly describe two strategies, supported in the academic literature, that might lead to Organisational Commitment.
(Zahid, 2017) described two strategies which might lead to organizational commitment which includes employee turnover strategies and retention strategies. Employees show organizational commitment at workplace by displaying positive intent via securing goals of an organization. (Ashraf, 2012) described that by correlating goal setting, by enhancing workplace optimism and by enhancing employee engagement, organizational commitment can be achieved. Most of the managerial and executive employees tries to implement and recognize such strategies for increasing organizational commitment. But for making effective implementation of the model, it is suggested that reasonable time should be provided for setting goal, because it is the most important as well as fundamental step towards all processes.
Zahid, M. (2017). Retention Strategies to Increase Organizational Commitment and Reduce Employee Turnover in Hospitality Sector of Karachi, Pakistan. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, [online] 7(2). Available at:
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/313999657_Retention_Strategies_to_Increase_Organizational_Commitment_and _Reduce_Employee_Turnover_in_Hospitality_Sector_of_Karachi_Pakistan [Accessed 15 Mar. 2019].
Ashraf, Z. (2012). Increasing Employee Organizational Commitment by Correlating Goal Setting, Employee Engagement and Optimism at Workplace. European Journal of Business and Management, [online] 4(2). Available at:
http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.839.8296&rep=rep1&type=pdf [Accessed 15 Mar. 2019].