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Project Management: Definition and Processes

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What is project management?

Project management is defined as a “process of managing project activities and sub-activities so that project will be accomplished within approved budget and timeframe”. In other words, project management is defined as the set of processes that are used for the management of project. It is about planning, controlling and monitoring of project’s activities to ensure that the project will be successfully delivered to the clients within assigned timeline. Basically, project management is technical and people-oriented approach which implies, that project management is basically concerned with project delivery aspects. Project manager is responsible for the management of project activities as all the activities of the project will only be managed by designing an appropriate schedule and time plan. Before the initiation of project, project manager gathers all functional and non-functional requirements of the project. In addition to this, he also evaluates the scope of the project in order to evaluate the functional aspects of project. After gathering all the requirement, he designs various project management plan namely, scope management plan, time management plan, budget management plan, Resource management plan, etc. further, project manager designs the WBS in order to divide the project into sub-activities so that project will be designed as per the desired functionalities. Project management comprises of various processes namely- scope management, schedule management, budget management, quality management, team management, information management, risk management, and contract management.

What are the processes that are involved in project management?

Project management consist of four processes namely- project initiation, project planning, project execution, and project closure.

  1. Project initiation- This is the first phase of project management in which, all functional and non-functional requirements of the project are gathered. In addition to this, the problems that are associated with project management are identified in this phase. Moreover, in the initiation phase of project management, the feasibility of the project is evaluated to ensure that whether project is feasible or not. Business analyst and project manager create SRS document in this phase in order to clear the vision of project among the development team.
  2. Planning phase- In this phase, resources (hardware, software, and human) required for the development of project are In addition to this, project manager deigned various project management plan such as resource management plan, quality management plan, time management plan, resource management plan, etc. in order to accomplish the objective of the project timely. Along with this, the risk management plan is also designed in this phase, in order to minimize the impact of risk on the project.
  3. Execution phase- In this phase all the available resources are allocated to the team members. Moreover, the main focus of this phase is to timely accomplish the deliverables of the project. In addition to this, in the execution phase of project management, the developer designs a code for each module in order to achieve the desired functionality of the project. In this phase, test cases are also prepared by the tester in order to test the functionality of the project.  After unit testing, test integrates all the unit in order to perform integration testing in which overall functional behavior of the project is tested to ensure that whether the project meets the requirements of the project or not.
  4. Closure phase- This is the last phase of project management in which the work performed during the project development is documented into the final In this phase, the developed project is delivered to the clients.

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