The Types and Process of Communication

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Communication is the method of conveying the intended messages from one person to another with the help of signs and semiotic rules which are mutually understood by both of them. The communication is a two-way process where one person transmits the ideas, feelings and opinions so that the other person or a group of persons can understand the intended message precisely in the way it is said. This term has been derived from the Latin word “Communis” which means to share. The communication process is considered productive and successful when the receiver understands the message in the same way the sender has intended it. 

Almost all the universities which provide management degrees like MBA keep business communication as an essential subject where they teach the fundamentals of effective communications to the students. The managers of all departments need to know how to communicate so that the information flow remains steady. Excellent communication skills are required to present oneself in the public settings confidently and the person who masters this skills diligently always have a leading edge over others. To inculcate exceptional communication skills the organisations also train their employees because they know that an effective communication system is the backbone of their organisation. In a nutshell, communication is considered a highly essential life skill, and therefore it is taught to students of all levels. 


We not only communicate in a single way that is speaking. There are three main categories of communication and are defined as follows: 

  1. Verbal Communication 

If we mainly talk about the formal setting in the companies, then the verbal communication is what takes place in person or over the phone. Here the individuals share the message with the help of speech. The medium for transmitting the signal in verbal communication is oral. In the corporate setting, the employees should be able to communicate their thoughts in the correct language, tone and pronunciation so that the other person can understand them correctly. The verbal communication is vital to resolving the grievances and conflicts in the workplace. 

  1. Nonverbal communication 

The nonverbal communication as its name suggests includes only the facial expressions, the pitch of the sound, the tone of the speaker and the gestures of the speaker. The gestures are also called the body language, and it plays a vital role in conveying the message. The physical distance or proximity is also essential to notice to understand the cues of a nonverbal combination. The nonverbal gestures give the clues about the actual meaning of the message which are spoken by the sender. The nonverbal clues can also provide some additional information about the meaning of the spoken word. This type of communication plays an active role in the formation of teams and building trust among the employees. 

  1. Written communication 

The written communication is also a prominent way of communicating at the workplace. Usually, all the formal work is done with the help of written or printed messages. The e-mails, official letters, memorandums, proposals, policies and procedures and the training modules are the form of written communication in the organisations. The messages can be handwritten, appear on the computer screen, or they can also be typed or printed on paper. The written form of communication is the asynchronous as the messages are read and interpreted by the receiver at the different time when it is written. The reader or receiver can understand the message at any time, and many people can read the same message at a single point in time. 


The communication happens in some steps of phases, and it is called the communication process. It is a dynamic process, and it takes into account both the sender and the receiver. The time frame in which the message should be conveyed and interpreted is also an essential criterion for the successful communication. Seven essential elements are there in a complete communication process which are described as below: 

  1. The conceptualization of the idea by the sender 

The person who initiates the conversation is called as the sender or the communicator. The communicator conceptualises the idea of the communication which he/she wants to convey to another person or a particular group of people. This is the first stage of the communication process. 

  1. Encoding of the message 

The message which the sender wants to give to the receiver is encoded by the sender once he/she conceptualize it. Encoding means the sender uses the suitable verbal or non-verbal techniques for examples words, tone, gestures, signs and symbols etc. to translate the intended message so that the receiver can understand it. There are various factors which affect the success of the word and that are the communication skill of the communicator, the background, the knowledge and the competencies of the sender. 

  1. The message 

With the help of the encoding process, the sender gets the message he/she wants to send to the other person. The message can be in any form such as in the written form, oral form, or the nonverbal clues and gestures, silence, individual sounds, sound patterns, and sighs etc. The message can be in any form which can trigger the attention and response of the person at the receiver end. 

  1. Communication channel or the medium of communication 

The communication channel or the communication medium is also an essential element of the whole communication process. The sender has to select the most appropriate medium for communicating the message so that it goes to the receipt as it is without any deflection or change. The medium should be chosen very carefully so that the recipient interprets the message correctly and efficiently. The interpersonal relationship between the participants also plays a significant role in deciding the medium of the communication. Commonly uses communication channels include sounds, words, oral, gestures and the virtual mediums. 

  1. The receiver 

The receiver or the recipient is the person for whom the message is targeted to. The receiver has to understand and interpret the meaning of the message in a best possible manner only then the communication process can say to be effective and complete. There are many factors which help the receiver to understand the message which is like his/her knowledge about the subject in conversation, trust on the sender, interpersonal relation with the sender, and experience etc. 

  1. Decoding of the message 

In the decoding stage, the receiver interprets the meaning of the message. Then communication process can only be completed if the receiver understands the meaning in the same way the sender has intended it. 

  1. The feedback in the end 

This is the final step of any communication process, and this ensures the correct interpretation of the message by the recipient. The sender can know the efficacy of his/her message if the receiver gives proper feedback. The receiver can respond to the form of a verbal or non-verbal method.