The first generation computer system and the further levels have seen the evolution of the operating systems. For the definition of the operating system and learn what it does, you can reach the previous blog. In this, we will read and discuss the crucial types of the operating system used commonly.
1. Simple Batch Operating System
There is no direct interaction between the computer and the user under this type of operating system. What the user does is that firstly he prepares his job on an offline device and then it submits the done work to the operator. The methods used here can be the punch cards. Yeah, it consumes more time, but we have a technique to speed up the process. The jobs which have the similar needs or requests for similar requirements are paired up or batched up together. They are then run as a cluster.
After this, only the operators have the user’s programs. Then it does the sorting work. It sequences all the plans with the similar needs and collects them in batches. But there are various problems related to the simple batch OS. Yeah, that is why it gave rise to the higher level code of the operating system. These are
a. It lacks the user-job interaction.
b. The low speed of the mechanical devices results in keeping the CPU in the idle state for long.
c. Sometimes it fails to satisfy the needs and creates difficulty in proving the desired priorities.
2. Time-sharing Operating Systems
Yes, you have got it right. When multiple people sitting at various terminals uses a particular computer system, then it comes under the technique of time-sharing. Varied programming is the logical extensions of the time-sharing or multitasking. In this type of operating system, the time of the processor is shared among various users simultaneously.
It differs from the previously discussed type of operating system in the objective of the processor. In the Multi-programmed batch systems, the primary motive is to maximize the use of the processor. In the time-sharing systems, the response time of the processor has to be minimized.
CPU executes multiple jobs and switches between them. No, you can’t observe the switching, because it occurs so frequently. That is why you can get an instant response to all your jobs. The processor treats every job in the quantum of computation or a short burst. In this way, the processing is executed. The number of users does not matter here, because each user gets a time quantum. What do you expect that what would be the response time? It is just a few seconds. Benefits of the time-sharing OS are as follows-
a. Responses quickly
b. It eludes the replication of software
c. Aids in reducing the CPU’s idle time
Detriments of the time-sharing OS
a. Reliability is a problem
b. Not so safe and integrated platform
c. Data communication is also not easy
3. Distributed OS
The distributed systems use more than one central processors to serve multiple users and multiple real-time applications. The various processors get the data processing jobs accordingly. There are numerous communication tools available for the processors so that they can communicate easily. These have got another name; it is loosely coupled systems.
There are no fixed size and function of the processors. The other names of the processors are the computers, nodes, sites and many others.
The positive points of the system are –
a. Allows multiple uses of the processor to the users (Possible due to the resource sharing facility).
b. It uses the electronic mail to speed up the exchange of data.
c. The work never stops. If one node goes down, the other one potentially continue operating
d. Serve the customers for their betterment
e. Reduces the burden of the host computer
f. Data processing is not delayed with its use
4. Network Operating System
It aids in the data management, serve the users, their groups, takes care of the security and the applications. The system runs on a server and provides other networking functions as well. Allowing the shared files and printing the access among the multiple nodes in a network are the two primary purposes of the networking operating systems. Commonly, it includes its functionality in the LAN (local area networks), a private network to connect with other networks.
Are you looking for some examples of the systems which are working on the network operating system? Get the answer here. These are the Microsoft Windows Server 2003, Linux, Mac OS X, Novell NetWare, Microsoft Windows Server 2008, BSD.
Benefits of the network OS
a. Highly stable and consistent centralized server
b. Manages the security of the servers
c. The updates of the hardware and the technologies are handled efficiently. Also, have high integration level of the system.
Disadvantages of the system
a. Buying and running the server is not cost effective.
b. Have high dependence on a central location for most operations.
5. Real-Time Operating System
It is defined as the data processing system of the processes in which the time interval for the processing and the response to the inputs is minute. It is so small that it can control the environment. The response time is a term which is used to calculate the time duration of the response of the input and display of required updated information.
Hard real-time systems
Here, even the critical tasks get completed promptly. It has the limited secondary storage, that is why the data is stored in ROM. The virtual memory is absent.
Soft real-time systems
There is a lesser number of restrictions in the soft real-time systems as compared to hard real-time systems. The critical tasks in this system are at the priority and can retain it until it gets accomplished. It also varies from its counterpart in the limitedness of the utility. Multimedia, virtual reality, planetary rovers, advanced scientific projects are some of the instances of the soft real-time systems.