Waterfall Model: Advantages and disadvantages

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In the modern business scenarios, most of the prominent firms or companies use SDLC approach especially waterfall for developing effective outcomes. Companies use several models of software development life cycle for creating successful projects.  The article demonstrates the key concept of the Waterfall model approach and its advantages and disadvantages.

What do you mean by the waterfall model?

Waterfall model is considered as one of the major and widely used models for project development. Typically, the waterfall model is a traditional model which follows a sequential approach for designing projects. In the waterfall model, the outcome of one phase is the input for the next phase only when the previous phase is completed. It is used for a very long time in the project development processes. Thus, the waterfall model is considered as the best model in developing a project where quality is more important as compared to schedule, cost. Waterfall model is perfect for short term projects such as Calculator, Attendance management.

Phases of the waterfall model.

Following are the phases of waterfall model-

Requirement gathering phase

The first phase of the waterfall model is requirement gathering. Once the project requirements are freeze then only the system design can start. Software requirement specification document is considered as a deliverable of this phase. In this phase, the created SRS document is the output for this phase and input for the system design.

System design

Once the project requirements are specified, the system design occurs. In the system design phase, software architecture design and documents act as an input for the next phase such as implementation and coding phase.

Implementation phase

In the implementation phase, coding is done and the developed software is the input for the next phase (Testing).

Testing phase

Testing phase demonstrates testing of the developed software’s source code is done. Typically, testing is done to detect the bugs and issues in the source code of the software.

Deployment phase

The developed software is moved into production after giving a sign by the customers.

Maintenance phase

Key issues in the production environments are resolved by the developers which come under maintenance.

Advantages and disadvantages of Waterfall model approach.

Here are some advantages and disadvantages of waterfall model approach that enhances project processes are-


  • Deliverables of each phase are well defined and lead to no complexity also makes the project more manageable.
  • Waterfall model is the best-suited model for increasing project processes (Short term) and which can easily understand. In the waterfall model, all the phases are executed step by step.
  • Requirements do not change nor does design and code in the waterfall model.
  • Requirements are finalized earlier in the life cycle in the waterfall


  • Backtracking is not possible in waterfall model approach so we cannot go back and change requirements once the design stage is reached.
  • Customer may not be satisfied with this model.
  • It is not suited for developing long term projects.
  • Waterfall model is a very time-consuming
  • The end result may not be a flexible project.
  • Change in requirements leads to change in design and code which may affect the project due to the overlapping of phases.