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What is project management?

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Project management is defined as the application of knowledge, tools, skills, and techniques that are required to satisfy the customer requirements. In order to achieve the objective of the project, it is mandatory to identify requirements of the project, concerns, needs, project constraints and customer expectations that fulfill expected quality standards and stakeholder expectations. Project management is quite essential for the project implementation that reduces or minimizes the risk of cost overruns, quality improvement and increases the chance of success. Project management supplies tools in order to circumscribe the scope of the project.  With the use of project management approach, project manager can anticipate risks, measure progress and quality of the project as well. Project management deals with developing- work schedule, financial report model of the project, manage cost against budget, status reporting etc. Various project management approaches that are used for the development of project are- Lean Six Sigma, PRINCE 2, Agile, PMBOK (Project Management Body of Knowledge) etc. methodology is practices, techniques, and rules that are used for the development of project. Each methodology has its own phases, depends on the types of project appropriate approach for the development of project is selected. There are different ways to deliver projects such as deliverables of the project are delivered in increments, complete delivery of project that possesses desired functionality etc. depends on the selected methodology products are delivered. The common phases of each project management approaches are- Initiation, planning, implementation, execution and project closure. Project scope deals with the required work to create the project deliverables. Project scope is evaluated by the project manager before initiation phase in which project manager determine the activities that need to be performed, resource required, and quality processes required for the development of the project.
Scope is defined as the work that needs to be done in order to deliver project with specified features and functions.  Scope describes the loopholes of the project. Project scope can be managed by three areas namely-scope planning, scope control, scope verification.
Scope planning
The main objective of scope planning is to define what resources are included in the project. In scope planning, initially functional and non-functional requirements of project are collected. With the use of collected requirements project scope statement can be created that contains- project scope description, project acceptance criteria, project deliverables, project constraints, project assumptions, project exclusions. The final phase of scope planning is to create Work Breakdown Structure. WBS helps the project manager to estimate cost and time factors of the project.

Scope control- The main objective of scope control is to handle and control changes to the project.

Scope verification- In scope verification process, project deliverables are reviewed by the customers to ensure that the project has been completed according to the requirements and acceptance criteria.

Scope Management Plan
Scope Management Plan includes processes for defining, validating and controlling the activities of the project. Project scope management plan is the process of controlling project in terms of objective and goal. Project scope management plan includes practices that are important to ensure that the project meets the desired requirements or not. Scope refers to “what is actually needed to be done” whereas, scope management means “managing what needs to be done”. The scope of the project is also defined in term of intended functionality which the project needs to provide to the customer. Project scope statement is a document that are presented in drawings, and pricing figures. The scope statement will include expectations about any eventually extensions and include contingency policy as well. Scope statement clearly defines the functionality of the project to proposers, designers, implementer, developer, tester and the users.  Scope of the project is also defined in terms of cost budget figures. The budget figure expresses the amount of cost that incurred during the development of the project. The outcome of scope development plan is used for the effective allocation of resources and plan expenditures. It also saves time and budget by eliminating the risk factors to large extent. Scope management plan consists of five processes- Collection of requirements, Scope Evaluation, creation Work Breakdown Structure (WBS), verification of scope and control scope.

Project scope management processes-

  • Collection of requirements:  In order to gather requirements of the project, the team members involved in the development of information system conduct interviews, collective discussion, surveys etc. SRS (Software Specification Document) document can be prepared after gathering of requirements.
  • Scope Evaluation: For project success, this is the critical step as it requires proper description of project such as assumptions, constraints, deliverables, and selection of framework within the project.
  • Creation of Work Breakdown Structure: WBS is a method used to divide and conquer complex and large project into smaller and manageable parts. WBS plays an important role in which large size project is divided into small chunks means work can be done simultaneously by different team members, leading to the faster delivery of the project and better team productivity. With the help of WBS, the project progress can be analyzed such as scheduling, costing, controlling and monitoring of the project.
  • Scope verification-In scope verification process, project deliverables are reviewed by the customers to ensures that the project has been completed according to the requirements and acceptance criteria.
  • Control scope: This is the process of monitoring and controlling the scope of the project as well as managing the changes held in scope baseline.

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