Wireless Sensor Networks issues and their Prevention Techniques

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Abstract: The WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks) are the networks which are wireless and referred as a distributed network. WSN consists large number of distributed, self-directed and low powered devices or nodes.  Such network is used for collecting, processing and conveying data to the users, but it uses restricted processing and computing capabilities.  

Overview of the technology:

Wireless Sensor nodes contains power unit, communication unit and a power unit. Each node performs the collection of data, sensing of data and act as a bridge between the physical devices and virtual world. These sensor networks have the potential to measure the environmental conditions like wind, temperature, humidity, pollution, sound etc.


• Health care monitoring
• Industrial monitoring
• Environmental monitoring

Highlighting problems in chosen area or Research problem:

There are various issues as well as challenges related to Wireless Sensor Networks such as:

• Energy: The batteries used in the wireless sensor networks needs to be charged when full energy is consumed by them.
• Operating system: The main problem in wireless sensor networks is related to the operation system due to its complexity.
• Software and hardware issues: Software and hardware used in the wireless sensor networks consumed more energy and their functions depends on hardware.
• Security: This is one of the major issue in wireless sensor networks.  In certain cases, the information shared between the sensor nodes is intercepted by the hackers which effects the confidentiality of the information transferred over the network.

Research Justification

WSNs are used to monitor environmental conditions, health conditions etc. For ensuring that no problem occurs during the monitoring process in wireless sensor networks, there is need to overcome all the issues related to it.

Related work

(Zia and Zomaya, 2006) described security issues related to wireless sensor networks. Different types of attacks that are faced in the wireless sensor networks include sinkholes attack, Sybil attack, wormholes etc.

(S, 2008) provided an overview regarding the research activities ongoing in context to wireless sensor networks and issues involved with the designing of wireless sensor networks. Apart from design issues, issues which are discussed in this study incudes issues related to security, synchronization, localization, architecture etc.

Proposed Design

For securing the sensor networks, a framework is proposed which includes the following four phases:

• Hierarchical Authentication: It is designed for providing security.
• Topology routing algorithm phase: This phase is designed for providing global sharing of keys by aggregating sensors.
• Key pre-distribution phase: This phase is also known as Re-keying phase as in this phase the keys are updated.
• Cluster based re-keying: In this phase, problem of broadcast authentication is resolved.


The research concludes that health care monitoring, industrial monitoring and environmental monitoring are three main applications of wireless sensor networks. The research problem on the basis of which the entire research is based includes security issues, energy efficiency issues, hardware and software issues of wireless sensor networks. For overcoming all such issues, a framework is proposed in this research which has the potential to mitigate all these issues. This framework is considered to be significant as it helps to ensure security of the WSNs sensor nodes.


• Zia, T. and Zomaya, A. (2006). Security Issues in Wireless Sensor Networks. 2006 International Conference on Systems and Networks Communications (ICSNC'06), 2(2).
• S, G. (2008). Issues in Wireless Sensor Networks. Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering, [online] 1(1). Available at: http://www.iaeng.org/publication/WCE2008/WCE2008_pp176-187.pdf [Accessed 15 march 2019].