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ITC556 Assignment 3 Normalisation

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What is Normalization?

Normalization is the database design technique which helps in organizing table in a manner which helps in reducing redundancy and dependency of data which exists within the tables. It is also responsible for dividing larger tables to smaller tables and link them using relationships. Normalization is mainly used for two purposes which are as follows:
• Elimination of redundant data
• Ensuring data dependencies which make sense that data is logically stored.

Problems without Normalization

If the tables are not properly normalized and have data redundancy then it will not require extra memory space, but unfortunately it will become difficult to handle and update the database without facing any database loss. The three problems which are very frequent and will arise when database is not normalize is updation, deletion and insertion anomalies.

Normalization Rule

Normalization rules are divided into various normal forms which are as:
• First Normal form
• Second Normal Form
• Third Normal Form

First Normal Form

To be in a first normal form, the table should have single valued attributes. Along with this, the columns in table must have unique names.
• Each table cell should consist of a single value
• Each record in table must be unique.

Table name: Book_Records









Table name: Author_Records





Second Normal Form

To be in second normal form, the table must be in first normal form as well as there should be no partial dependency between the columns in table.
• Table must be in 1st  normal form
• Partial dependencies must not exist in the table

Table Name: Author_Records





Note: As there was no partial dependency in the table, so in second normal form will remain the same as in first normal form.

Third Normal Form

To be in third normal form, the table must be in second normal form as well as there should not be any transitive dependency in the table.
Steps which are to be practiced are as:
• Table must be in 2nd  normal form
• Transitive dependency must not exist in the table

Table name: Publisher_Records




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