Network Design is a process of planning the network infrastructure of a computer. It is basically performed by engineers, network designers, IT administrators etc. The network is designed before the implementation of network infrastructure. The entire process of network design is represented in the form of a network diagram which serves as the blueprint for the implementation of the network physically. The network design includes a logical map of the network, cabling structure, IP addressing structure, network security processes, and architecture. During the network designing process, it must be ensured that the business interruptions are avoided due to security flaws. One of the main business goals of network design is to develop the network by minimizing the expenditure cost and by increasing the revenue which will help the company to gain profit. Technical goals of a network design include scalability, adaptability, manageability, security, performance, availability and usability. The user communities which are associated with the network design for an organization include employees, remote warehouse users, call center users, retail outlet users etc. Various services and applications are used by these employees within a network.
Different types of applications are used by users in a network such as Web services, remote terminal access, VOIP, Email, Video streaming, FTP (File Transfer Protocol) etc. While designing a network, the engineers or the IT administrators are required to adopt a network topology for linking the computers or nodes in a network to other nodes or computers within a network. Network topology describes the way in which the nodes are positioned and unified with each other. It also describes the method by which the data is transferred between the connected nodes. For designing a network, point-to-point network topology, Ring topology, Hybrid topology, Tree topology, star topology, bus topology, mesh topology can be used. New users and nodes can be added to a scalable network simply in the approach of the building block. The transport and network layers depend on addresses which are encoded as bit strings of fixed size, where a host can be easily and uniquely identified from the network layer. Service of the same network layer can be used by different transport layer entities. While addressing scheme is natural for transport and network layer entities, the users of a network prefer to use names when interacting with servers. The names can be encoded in the form of the character string and a mapping service allows applications to map address into the corresponding names. It is important to develop naming and addressing schemes in any network which anticipates growth. An inclusive naming and addressing scheme facilitates maintenance of connected devices and asset control measures. An epitome naming scheme for individual devices and desktops, however, should provide useful information. Names used in the network design must be relatively short to fit within naming conventions. Without a proper understanding of the application requirements and applications, the network cannot be designed. Hence, for designing a proper network, organizations need to acquire highly skilled and experienced personnel who have a theoretical understanding of technologies.