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Before we begin to talk about geological studies, we need to know what geology is, its origin, its importance to our world and also some interesting information about it.

What is Geology?

Geology is the science that studies the composition, structure, dynamics and history of the Earth, including its natural resources (energy, minerals, water etc.), as well as the processes that affect its surface and, therefore, the environment.

Geology should not be reduced to the simple contemplation of a rock, mineral, fossil, or landscape, nor the study of major natural disasters. It is much more than that.

Geology is a basic and fundamental science to meet the needs of society. Its impact on our lives is direct and absolute.

Our society is currently facing unprecedented challenges. We need to respond to the needs of an increasingly populated planet that, at the same time, aspires to increase their standard of living. And, all this, without forgetting about sustainability.

The only way to meet this challenge is to have a qualified workforce, trained by Geology professionals with a solid background, prepared to manage the responses that our planet can offer to the needs of Humanity.

What does a geologist do?

A geologist is responsible for studying what makes up the geosphere, its parts, the changes or alterations that it may suffer and have suffered, its structure and many other things that make it up.

What are the main branches of Geology?

The base of geology studies is related to other sciences such as chemistry, geochemistry, physics, geophysics, biology, mathematics, petrography, among others.

It is divided into many branches some of which are:
• Crystallography
• Gemology
• Mineralogy
• Seismology
• Volcanology
• Geomorphology
• Hydrogeology
• Palaeontology
• Speleology
• Stratigraphy

These are many branches that this science has, however some have grown to become independent sciences such as palaeontology.

The origin of geology

It can be said that geology was born out of the desire of the human being to understand and know better the world in which he lives and also the desire to improve it.

The study of geology goes back to the times of the first writings talking about fossils, gems, rocks, natural disasters like earthquakes and volcanoes among others. This began to happen in the times of the ancient Greeks.

Many brilliant minds go into making what geology is today. So, we cannot name only one father or the parent of this science. The list of the pioneers is long, though we would try to present only a few notable ones who made remarkable discoveries to arrive where geology is in the present time.

The Danish Nicolás Steno: He was the first to begin the study of rocks and is considered the father of geology.
James Hutton: This Scottish geologist is considered the founder of modern geology.

There are other also, without whose brilliant ideas and studies, geology would not have achieved what is now. One among them is:

James Hall, who is considered the founder of experimental geology and geochemistry.

Importance of geology

Geology is a science of great importance for the evolution of life, without it we could not predict those natural disasters that can occur such as tidal waves, eruptions of volcanoes and many more. In the future, we might be able to predict earthquakes and other natural disasters with more precision.

Currently, many geologists who study geology work on improving and updating this science, some as professors in universities, others in research centres and others in companies responsible for exploring, discovering and exploiting the riches of the soil and subsoil.

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