Psychology is the study of human behaviour and the mind; it studies the functioning of the mind and its effect on the behaviour of the human. It is divided into two types:
· Basic psychology
· Applied psychology
When we talk about psychology, we are most probably talking about basic psychology. It is related to the pure research which is done with the basic motive of collecting information and seeking knowledge.
Applied psychology is what focuses on the research and taking action accordingly. It involves the implementation of the findings of research.
BRANCHES OF PSYCHOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS
Many people still imagine a psychologist as a person sitting in front of another who is lying on a couch telling what happens, but the psychology is a very broad field that goes beyond psychotherapy.
It is necessary to start from the basis that the human being is complex so that within psychology there are professionals of psychology that focus on perception, learning, memory, language, thinking or the way of reasoning. We can highlight the following branches of general psychology:
Clinical and Health Psychology
It is one of the branches of psychology most well-known is responsible for integrating science, theory and practice to understand, predict, investigate and intervene the more or less severe psychological problems that affect the quality of life of people, subsequently promoting adaptation, adjustment, well-being and personal development of the patient.
This branch has primary theoretical orientations, such as:
· Cognitive therapy
· Behavioural therapy
· Systematic and humanistic family therapy
One of the main practices of this discipline is psychotherapy, the diagnosis of disorders, in addition to teaching, administration, research, forensic testimony and program development.
The clinical psychologist focuses functionally on the intellectual, emotional, biological, psychological, social and behavioural aspects of human performance throughout the life of a person, adapting to different cultures and socioeconomic levels.
If the psychological alterations have to do with mental disorders, these professionals work together with other health professionals in the diagnosis, prognosis, intervention and control of these alterations. Its main fields of work are:
· Adult Clinical Psychology
· Clinical Psychogeriatric
· Clinical Neuropsychology
· Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
· Psychological evaluation
· Psychotherapy in its various theoretical currents
Our behaviour is influenced by the nervous system, both thoughts, emotions and feelings take place in the brain, so this speciality is essential for psychology.
It is used to obtain a better knowledge and understanding of human behaviour, both for the positive aspects and to have more information about the disorders and those brain areas that are affected.
His specialisation combines the disciplines of both psychology and neurology. Its objective is to analyse the functioning of the brain about mental processes and thus check if there is any alteration. It also helps us to understand better behaviours that are addictive or obsessive, explaining how our reward system behaves.
Thanks to this speciality we can understand behavioural changes that arise from a brain injury, a brain tumour or a disease that has damaged the nervous system, such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's.
Psychology of education and development
This branch of psychology focuses exclusively on learning processes. It specialises in the educational resources to use techniques and strategies to facilitate learning, especially for the people who have difficulties in the execution of their capabilities.
The term education is more complex than the one that is focused only on a school activity. With education, this discipline also understands the needs that can be presented in any field of learning, whether for a competitive examination, employee training or courses that help improve a social situation.
That's why it goes far beyond the schools. For educators, it is an excellent way to understand the needs and difficulties of their students.
In the psychology of development, the objective is to know the behavioural changes that occur in each of the stages of development. It supposes an understanding of the maturational process that goes from childhood to old age.
Both branches are linked to education and development since they complement each other, attending to the development of an individual and the stage in which he finds himself to acquire certain learning evolutionary.
Athletes, especially the elite, need this branch of psychology to face all the difficulties and challenges that are presented to them. The effort, discipline and motivation in this area are fundamental issues. The sports psychologist aims to implement strategies for athletes to have greater physical and psychological performance, leading them to improve their results.
The athlete needs to be in an optimal situation to take full advantage of their abilities and make the most of their possibilities. It is also important to consult a sports psychologist in situations where there is an injury, a crisis and possible failures; so, you can continue your sports career without falling apart.
Social psychology has as its specific interest the links and interactions in human relationships. What happens to the individual in a specific context, studying how it is influenced by the group and the environment in which it develops. The vast majority of our reactions, concerns, emotions and thoughts are in relation to other people.
The process of socialisation and the context in which we offer the answers is what social psychology is concerned about, trying to explain behaviours of all kinds, typical of the human being. This branch of psychology has a certain relationship with sociology and even with anthropology.
Other branches within psychology are the psychology of work and organisations, the psychology of marketing and consumer, sexology and couples therapy, forensic psychology, traffic psychology and security. And other branches that appear, adapting to the needs of our development and evolution as human beings.