Procedural Programming Vs Object Oriented Programming

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Coding and programming are a broad spectrum which comprises of a wide range of entities to simplify a complex problem. A large number of real-world problems could be solved with the help of appropriate programming and coding. There exist numerous ranges of programming types and methods such as procedural programming, OOPS (Object-Oriented Programming), dynamic programming, etc. However, object oriented programming is the most widely used concept. This article will provide a brief insight into both programming technologies along with concise differentiation amongst both.

Definition of Procedural Programming
Procedural programming is defined as the programming paradigm which primarily makes use of a linear and top-down approach. It strictly relies upon various subroutines and procedures to perform different computations. In context to procedural programming, a program would consist of data along with various procedures and modules which operate on the overall data. The two are treated as different and unique entities. This type of programming is mainly derived with the help of structured programming directly on the concept which are related to procedure call.

These procedures are known by numerous other terms such as subroutines, routines, or functions. Further, the procedure calls might be called at any of the points during the execution. BASIC, COBOL, ALGOL, and Fortran are some of the most widely used procedural programming around the world.

What is Object Oriented Programming?
Object oriented programming is defined as a type language model which are organized around particular data and objects in place of logic or functions. Further, an object could be defined as a field of data which possess unique behavior and attributes. Some of the examples of objects might range from various physical entities, similarly as a human being which is described by the properties such as names, address, etc. Object Oriented Programming primarily opposes the overall historic approach to the programming which emphasized on the logic.

One of the primary step in Object Oriented Programming includes identification of all possible objects and the internal relation amongst them. Further, post identification of object, it is defined as a class of the object which defined the type of data it possesses and various logic sequence that have the capability to manipulate it.

Difference between OOP and Procedural Programming
Procedural Programming is primarily defined as an extensive model of programming that is with the help of structured programming and based upon the procedure calls concept. Further, procedures are called by numerous names such as functions or routines which majorly comprises of various computational steps that needs to be performed. In addition, during the execution of the program, at any point of time the procedure might be called. Thus, this type of programming formed a based and platform for development of OOPs.

In contrast to procedural programming, OOP could be appropriately defined as the model in which the overall concept is based on objects. The coding is contained in the form of methods and data is contained in the form of attributes. Further, a wide range of computer programs are made with the help of objects that have a strong interaction with numerous real world entities and objects.

Some of the basic and most prominent differences between Object Oriented Programming and Procedural Programming have been defined below –
• In context to procedural programming, the overall program is fragmented into small parts known as functions whereas in programming related to objects and classes, it is divided into various parts known as objects.
• Procedural programming mainly follows as a top-down approach whereas object oriented programming has a strict follow up of bottom up approach.
• In procedural programming, there exist no access specifier whereas, in object oriented programming, there are numerous specifiers such as private, protected, public.
• In context to procedural programming, the inclusion of new functions is a complex and sophisticated task whereas in object oriented programming, the task is comparatively simpler.
• Procedural programming does not possess any proper way of hiding or encapsulating data which makes it less secure. In object oriented programming, it provides an excellent way of data hiding which enhances the overall security.
• Procedural programming has a higher degree of importance, preference, and priority for function than data. However, an object oriented function, data is more important in comparison to a function.
• An important difference between procedural programming & object oriented programming is that procedural programming is based upon unreal world entities whereas object oriented is based upon real world entities.
• Examples of procedural programming include BASIC, PASCAL, FORTRAN, and C. Examples of object oriented programming includes C#, Python, Java, and C++.

Thus, Object Oriented Programming could be understood as an upgraded and updated version of procedural programming but both types have their respective pros and cons. However, Object Oriented Programming is widely used around the world by professional coders and programmers.